UK Biobank releases half a million whole-genome sequences for biomedical research
The release more than doubles the size of an earlier data set and will help reveal new links between DNA, health, and disease, geneticists say
The Molecule of Life
This image shows a pair of hands holding a glowing molecule that resembles DNA, the molecule of life. The molecule is composed of pink and blue spheres that represent the four bases of DNA: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. The white lines that connect the spheres are the sugar-phosphate backbone that holds the DNA strands together. #life #DNA #science #art
Il sequenziamento del genoma dei neonati potrebbe presto rilevare in anticipo centinaia di malattie anche rare, stravolgendo modelli di cura e prevenzione. Questa evoluzione, che muoverà i primi passi "ufficiali" dal 2025, apre nuovi orizzonti nella medicina predittiva ma solleva anche questioni etiche e sociali.
"Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events."
Sarno S, Boattini A, Carta M, Ferri G, Alù M, et al. (2014) An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy. PLOS ONE 9(4): e96074. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096074 #OpenAccess #OA #Research #Article #Science #STEM #Population #Genetics #PopulationGenetics #Italy #Sicily #DNA #Paleogenetics #Europe #Anthropology #Biology #Academia @science @biology @anthropology
“The site of the hospital of St John the Evangelist was excavated in 2010, uncovering hundreds of unidentified graves. For the new study, experts in #DNA and isotope analysis, human skeletal variation and a range of other disciplines examined up to 50 individual characteristics of each skeleton, to build what they believe is one of the richest such datasets ever compiled for medieval #England."
Europarlamentarul #USR (#UniuneaSalvațiRomânia) #VladGheorghe îl critică dur pe Cătălin #Drulă în cazul dosarului vaccinurilor: „Să trimiți scrisorele la #Bruxelles să te plângi de #DNA, după ce ai fost singurul partid care s-a opus măcelului din justiție de la OUG13 încoace?.
#Drulă trebuie să înceteze acum”.
If we map L to Guanine, A to Adenine, S to Cytosine, and T to Thymine, we could encode the Y-combinator directly in #DNA as:
GA GACTATT GACTATT
GA GATT GACTATT
GATT being our omega-replicator.
Is that awesome or what?
#USR (#UniuneaSalvațiRomânia) a sesizat #ComisiaEuropeană (@EU_Commission) privind dosarul #DNA al vaccinurilor, despre care susține că ar submina ”separația puterilor în stat, principiile democrației și coeziunea europeană”.
Researchers designed some kind of a state machine on top of DNA.
Apparently general-purpose #DNA #computing is not a complete abstraction, and there is active work in this area. E.g.:
LAST is an extremely minimal programming language which uses only 4 symbols (conventionally L, A, S, and T) to encode any algorithm. In that LAST is analogous with DNA, the language of biology, which uses only 4 symbols (conventionally C, G, A, and T) to encode any organism.
O secție de Poliție este construită pe unul dintre terenurile care ar fi fost obținute ilegal în dosarul fraudelor cu terenuri din Capitală.
#DNA: „Se plătește chirie și în prezent unuia dintre inculpați”.
Trei persoane reținute.
https://mpg.de/21173804/interview-marotzke-klimakommunikation #Klima #Klimawandel #Golfstrom #WissKomm @MPI_Meteo
#Epigenetics is focused on the study of how experience changes an individual’s #genetic expression, previously considered inalterable. ... #research #cannabis that #epigenetics is #revolutionizing the #study of #mental #health and challenging the belief that #DNA is #destiny.
https://mpg.de/21173804/interview-marotzke-klimakommunikation #Klima #Klimawandel #Golfstrom #WissKomm @MPI_Meteo
#Epigenetics is focused on the study of how experience changes an individual’s #genetic expression, previously considered inalterable. ... #research indicates that epigenetics is #revolutionizing the #study of #mental #health and challenging the belief that #DNA is #destiny.
“With Ry, man, he can just play one note on the slide and it just melts.” That’s all I have to say about it. It’s amazing. He made a ton of soundtracks in addition to his many records, and all of them is fantastic. He’s such a musicologist that music and guitar appear to be written all over his #DNA. I can’t help but be inspired”
Percheziții #DNA într-un dosar care vizează fraude cu terenuri în cea mai scumpă zonă a Capitalei.
Prejudiciu estimat la peste 10 milioane 💶#EUR.
SURSE: Pe majoritatea terenurilor au fost construite ansambluri rezidențiale.
Gerade mal 50 € kosten die Bauteile für einen #DIY-Bead-Homogenisator aus dem #3DDrucker. Und der lysiert nicht nur Zellen, etwa für die #DNA-Extraktion, sondern funktioniert auch als #Zentrifuge und Mischer. Harald Zähringer stellt ihn vor: https://www.laborjournal.de/rubric/tricks/tricks/trick252.php #LabHack
"The Cosmic Serpent - DNA and the origins of knowledge" put so many ideas in my head. I need to write them down. If you're interested in biology and consciousness you want to read this book (and possibly the thoughts that follow).
It starts with insightful criticism of anthropology as a science, followed by an investigation into the knowledge of Ayahuascaeros (“shamans”).
The TL;DR: they ‘read’ DNA in certain states of mind.
15-Jährige im Stadtpark vergewaltigt: Neun Männer verurteilt
Neun junge Männer sind vom Hamburger Landgericht zu Jugendstrafen verurteilt worden. Einer von ihnen muss ins Gefängnis.
I forgot to mention this on Black Friday so on Cyber Monday let me implore you not to purchase that great deal on sending your genome to a private corporation for "fun." The risks of doing this, many of which have not even been conceived yet by the profit machine, are not worth it for you or your current or future family. No matter what they say, you won't own your data. #DNA
p.s. I've already seen all the arguments, don't bother me with them.
While I like SnapGene's visualization of molecular biology constructs, the proprietary ".dna" format makes me reluctant to use this software. I will forever remember how hundreds of files created in another proprietary format for DNA sequences were lost in the past when the software reading them was suddenly no longer available.
If you are using #SnapGene, it is a good practice to keep exported backups of your files in an open and readable format (EMBL, Genbank).
Mitä paljastui DNA-kartoituksessa? Puoli seitsemän kerää lukijoiden kertomuksia
Puoli seitsemän kerää lukijoiden kertomuksia DNA-kartoituksista. Miksi olit kiinnostunut tekemään testin? Entä ilmenikö testistä jotain yllättävää, hauskaa tai jopa järkyttävää? Kerro tarinasi meille.
“CRISPR–Cas9 is best known as a laboratory tool for editing DNA, but its natural function is as part of the immune system that helps certain microorganisms to fight off viruses. Now, researchers have used an algorithm to sort through millions of genomes to find new, rare types of CRISPR system that could eventually be adapted into genome-editing tools.” #isogg #dna #geneadons #CRISPR #epigenetics
A tragédia tamanho G é que não raro, ambos os grupos são os feromônios do mau ou mal e a origem de toda sorte maldades e desgraças, inclusive o famigerado Cuscuz'Klan.
Manoel tudo fotógrafava, porém depois de fotografar essas foto, "perdeu mané", a vida!
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." (USA 1776)
#DNA cere ridicarea imunității fostului prim-ministru, Florin #Cîțu, precum și a foștilor miniștri ai Sănătății, Vlad #Voiculescu și Ioana #Mihăilă, pentru achiziția unui număr prea mare de vaccinuri anti-🦠#COVID, în timpul pandemiei, provocând astfel statului un prejudiciu de peste un miliard 💶#EUR. Este vorba de 52 de milioane de doze, suplimentar față de cele care ar fi fost necesare pentru întreaga populație a României.
Hijacking of the American Populist Tradition
“The Protestant ethic and the spirit of #wokeness,” Ian Buruma points out the obvious: wokeness is as old as the conversion testimony that Puritans in New England that those seeking to be considered “the elect” had to make to become “selectmen” who could vote and hold office. Indeed, the idea of “wokeness” is baked into #American historical and cultural #DNA from religious great awakenings to #political parties and campaigns.
Olhar do Amanhã: existe vida sintética?
This study shows that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the downregulation of active TE families extends lifespan. These findings link DNA activity to aging and opens up new possibilities in medical and biological research for health improvement and age determination.
#science #dna #piwipirna #epigenetics #ageing #research #naturecommunicationsjournal #openaccess
Ach.... Europas Polizeien dürfen bald mehr #Daten austauschen!
"Der Prümer Vertrag regelt, welche Daten europäische Polizeibehörden untereinander teilen dürfen․ Die EU plant seit langem, das Abkommen auszuweiten, seit Montag steht die neue Fassung․ Biometrische Daten sollen nun einfacher ausgetauscht werden können․"
"This is very much like the early stages of the #HumanGenomeProject. We have now begun that journey."
I once heard Julius Marmur say
You can go from physics or math to biology, but not the other way around
[ pause ]
I know of only one physicist who has made a real contribution to biology
I think he might have mean't Seymour Benzer
INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF #VIRAL #PROTEIN AND NUCLEIC ACID IN GROWTH OF #BACTERIOPHAGE https://rupress.org/jgp/article/36/1/39/30168/INDEPENDENT-FUNCTIONS-OF-VIRAL-PROTEIN-AND-NUCLEIC
We are looking for talented junior scientists to join our International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Two fully-funded 4-year #PhD fellowships (2024-2028) are available to carry out cutting-edge research on #genetics and #development of human #language, with several innovative projects to choose from, co-supervised by leading researchers at the Max Planck Institute and our partners at the Radboud University. Projects include investigating rare #DNA variants in genes that cause developmental speech/language disorders, and neuroimaging #genomic analyses of language circuits in the brain.
Application portal opens Dec 4th 2023 and closes Jan 8th 2024. Full information and FAQ can be found here: https://www.mpi.nl/imprs-phd-fellowships-2024
Boosts much appreciated!
The longer answer is that I use #graphtheory, #statistics, and #biology to plan experiments, then use compression algorithms, more statistics, and computers to make accurate predictions and inferences from high throughput sequencing data.
From 11 Nov: Mummified baboons point to the direction of the fabled land of Punt - Enlarge / Drawing of a trade expedition to Punt during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut. Note... https://arstechnica.com/science/2023/11/mummified-baboons-point-to-the-direction-of-the-fabled-land-of-punt/ #ancient-dna #ancient-egypt #archeology #baboon #dna #egypt #egyptian-mummies #genetics #science
At a wildlife park in the Scottish Highlands, a captive-breeding programme is considering an audacious breeding strategy to eliminate the house-cat #DNA that has infiltrated the wildcat genome.
To help them to unpick the problem, researchers analysed the genomes of dozens of ancient and modern #cats.”
“if #cycling maintains cardiovascular performance more effectively than a $2m-a-year #antiaging regime, maybe a #bike is the only rejuvenation tool any of us really need”
“If #exercise were a drug, what’s the correct dose?”
“It’s tempting to assume that there is something like a clock encrypted in our #DNA counting down the time we have left. But that’s an unhelpful analogy” https://www.cyclingweekly.com/fitness/the-anti-ageing-face-off-dollar2m-a-year-blueprint-project-versus-the-humble-bicycle #bicycle #fitness #aging #longread
Pretty big crowd at the #ISNAC2023 meeting - on #NucleicAcids #Chemistry
I thought I did ok - went over Advances in #DNA & #RNA #Polymer hybrids. Key slide ⅓ of the way through after acknowledgements & background I showed the headers, titles of the 4 papers my student has out - in Chem, Precision Chem, JACS and ACS Nano, the last one just 2 weeks ago.
Told the audience he was happy, I was happy, and I hope they would read the papers, so "you too will be happy"
Just one slight chuckle
I have 308/1436 Neanderthal DNA traits according to 23andme. Neat.
I'd like to learn more about computational models of gene regulatory networks. Does anybody have pointers about that?
Boosts appreciated. :boost_requested:
To be more specific, I'm looking for something analogous to artificial neural networks. Something very simplified and easy to implement. Something that focuses on the causal / informational / computational properties of gene regulatory networks in general.
That's probably different from models of specific gene networks, or computational biology tools for studying the genes of real organisms.
GSK Plc will pay #23andMe Holding Co. $20M for #GeneticTesting company’s vast #trove of #consumer #DNAData, extending a 5 yr collaboration that’s allowed the #drugmaker to mine #geneticdata as it researches new #medications. Under the new agreement, 23andMe will provide GSK with one year of access to anonymized #DNA data from the approximately 80% of gene-testing customers who have agreed to share their information for research. Really? #privacy #medicine #healthcare https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2023-10-30/23andme-will-give-gsk-access-to-consumer-dna-data
They are also marketed as your perfect #DeFI trading agent (despite each having their unique designed-in random defects).
Really seems to be only targeted at investors, not at results. https://www.alteredstatemachine.xyz
@tkinias You have *great* dinner-table conversations (AND correctly hyphenate): so glad we both appropriately migrated and reconnected here!
Lately, our dinner-table conversations have been more about #historic structures and HVAC, budget, and fundraising, but I am sure they will soon pivot to Bronze Age ancient #DNA and the role of my ancestors in inventing language and domesticating horses
Identität auf Vorrat - mehr als eine Million Profile - DNA Sammelwut in #Deutschland
"Polizeiliche DNA-Datenbanken wachsen in beängstigender Geschwindigkeit und werden international vernetzt. Die eingängige Begründung: Spurensammeln gegen Gewaltverbrechen wie Mord oder Vergewaltigung.
Doch das Hauptaugenmerk der biologischen #Vorratsdatenspeicherung liegt längst nicht mehr auf Kapitalverbrechen. Im Gegenteil: Es geht um eine flächendeckende präventive Erfassung, die u.a. Bagatelldelikte wie Diebstahl, Grafittisprayen oder kleine Dealereien zum Anlass nimmt.
Das Buch gibt einen umfassenden Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der DNA-Datenspeicherung. Die Autor_innen untersuchen die gefährliche Weiterentwicklung der DNA-Analyse. Sie entmystifizieren die »Wahrheitsmaschine« #DNA und zeigen Grenzen und Fehlerquellen im kriminaltechnischen Alltag auf. Sie dokumentieren ermutigende Beispiele für Protest- und Widerstandsaktionen. Und nicht zuletzt bietet das Buch praktische und juristische Tipps, wie man sich gegen das Wattestäbchen im Mund und die Speicherung von DNA-Profilen wehren kann."
Das Buch erschien bereits 2017 in zweiter Auflage...
Der polizeiliche Zugriff auf DNA-Daten - Strategien der Gegenwehr #Zine
"Was tun, wenn die #Polizei eine Speichelprobe verlangt, um Deine #DNA zu analysieren?
Was, wenn Dein DNA-Profil schon in der DNA-Datenbank des BKA gespeichert ist?
Und was, wenn die #Ermittlungsbehörden Dich wegen eines Massengentests, einer so genannten DNA-Reihenuntersuchung, anschreiben?
Seit einer Strafrechtsreform von 2005 wurde der polizeiliche Zugriff auf die DNA-Daten enorm ausgeweitet – und der Rechtsschutz empfindlich ausgehöhlt. Gleichzeitig gilt: Je diffuser die Rechtslage, desto mehr Spielräume gibt es, sich – auch mit rechtlichen Mitteln – zur Wehr zu setzen. Und je mehr die biologische Vorratsdatenspeicherung zunimmt, desto mehr ist Widerstand angesagt."
August 2023 / Gen-ethisches Netzwerk e.V.
BBC Radio 4 -The Gift
Across six episodes, Jenny Kleeman meets the men and women whose lives changed forever after they opened a box that contained a DNA test. Exposing scandals, upending identities, solving mysteries and delivering life-changing news - Jenny investigates what happens when genealogy, technology and identity collide.
Please consider modifying your #DNA, I suppose?
"Hacker leaks millions more 23andMe user records on cybercrime forum" : https://techcrunch.com/2023/10/18/hacker-leaks-millions-more-23andme-user-records-on-cybercrime-forum/
You've probably heard from transphobes about how "you can't change your DNA," so nothing you do in transition really matters. "Basic biology," they whinge. Well... what about intermediate biology?
This week on #StainedGlassWoman, come and see How HRT Rewrites Your DNA by just plain turning off the parts you don't need and turning on the ones you do! Now with more wedding photos, from *another* queer wedding.
Interesting, but I already know I'm a spice-loving, risk-taking, eat/drink-anything, boogie-down, non-sneezing introvert - and with the exception of the hothead trait (self-induced 🌶), I know exactly which came from Mom, from Dad, and from both!
Apparently (according to 23andme) the data was obtained through credential stuffing (i.e. trying out username/password combinations that have been leaked elsewhere before), and not due to a security issue on 23andme’s side.
While one could easily blame the victims for reusing their passwords and not enabling 2FA, I think businesses dealing with such sensitive data like 23andme should have an even stronger focus on their users’ data security. Requiring long passwords, checking against previously leaked passwords and making 2FA mandatory (and not just optional) are three easy steps that (together) would have probably prevented this data breach.
A new company is underway that says it adapts the gene editing technique Crispr to make detecting nucleic acid targets like DNA or RNA faster and simpler.
EU-Kommissar @thierrybreton.bsky.social hat einen neuen Gesetzesvorschlag angekündigt: den #DigitalNetworksAct (#DNA)
Ein Ziel: weniger, größere Telekommunikationsunternehmen. Auch das Thema der trusted vendors will Breton massiv ausweiten.... Meine Analyse, die gestern bei heise online erschien.
🇺🇸 🗳️ D.C. Board of #Elections confirms voter data stolen in site hack
🔓 #MGM Resorts confirms hackers stole customers’ personal data during #cyberattack
🔓 🧬 #DNA testing service 23andMe investigating theft of user data
🔓 🎧 #Sony confirms #databreach impacting thousands in the U.S.
📱 💥 Lyca Mobile Group Services Significantly Disrupted by Cyberattack
🔓 🕵🏻♂️ #NATO investigating breach, #leak of internal documents
🔓 🇪🇺 European Telecommunications Standards Institute Discloses Data Breach
🔓 🏨 #MotelOne discloses data breach following #ransomware attack
🇰🇵 💰 North Korea's #Lazarus Group Launders $900 Million in #Cryptocurrency
🇧🇪 🇨🇳 #Alibaba accused of ‘possible espionage’ at European hub
🇨🇳 #China-linked cyberspies #backdoor #semiconductor firms with #CobaltStrike
🥸 Meet LostTrust #ransomware — A likely rebrand of the #MetaEncryptor gang
🇬🇾 🇨🇳 #Guyana Governmental Entity Hit by #DinodasRAT in #CyberEspionage Attack
🇷🇺 🇺🇸 #FBI most-wanted Russian hacker reveals why he burned his passport
🇺🇸 🏥 #FDA cyber mandates for #medicaldevices goes into effect
☁️ 🔓 Number of Internet-Exposed #ICS Drops Below 100,000
☁️ #Microsoft Warns of Cyber Attacks Attempting to Breach Cloud via #SQL Server Instance
🦠 📈 #QakBot Threat Actors Still in Action, Using Ransom Knight and Remcos RAT in Latest Attacks
🔓 🍏 #Apple Warns of Newly Exploited iOS 17 Kernel Zero-Day
🎣 🧑🏻💼 US Executives Targeted in #Phishing Attacks Exploiting Flaw in Indeed Job Platform
🦠 🏦 #Zanubis #Android Banking Trojan Poses as Peruvian Government App to Target Users
🦠 🇮🇷 Iranian APT Group #OilRig Using New Menorah #Malware for Covert Operations
🔐 ☁️ #Amazon to make #MFA mandatory for 'root' #AWS accounts by mid-2024
🛡️ 🧅 #Microsoft Defender no longer flags #Tor Browser as malware
👀 X-Force uncovers global #NetScaler Gateway credential harvesting campaign
🐛 💰 Zero-days for hacking #WhatsApp are now worth millions of dollars
🩹 #Cisco fixes hard-coded root credentials in Emergency Responder
🔓 Vulnerabilities in #Supermicro BMCs could allow for unkillable server #rootkits
🔓 🐧 Looney Tunables: New #Linux Flaw Enables Privilege Escalation on Major Distributions
🐍 Warning: #PyTorch Models Vulnerable to Remote Code Execution via ShellTorch
🩹 Microsoft Edge, Teams get fixes for zero-days in #opensource libraries
🔓 🔥 Live Exploitation Underscores Urgency to Patch Critical WS-FTP Server Flaw
☁️ Cloudflare #DDoS protections ironically bypassed using #Cloudflare
📚 This week's recommended reading is: "8 Steps to Better Security: A Simple Cyber Resilience Guide for Business" by Kim Crawley
Subscribe to the #infosecMASHUP newsletter to have it piping hot in your inbox every week-end ⬇️
A ProPublica investigation highlighted a critical collection of evidence and inspired a law to preserve it.
Now, that evidence has been used to charge a man with three rapes.
While Rosalind Franklin (1920 – 1958), #chemist & #crystallographer is now remembered because her x-ray diffraction images which were instrumental to discovering double-helix structure of #DNA, I am posting her for #SciArtSeptember theme charcoal, because of her important contributions to #carbon research.
She made invaluable contributions across physics, chemistry & biology, working to determining the structure of #RNA,
2. "The sheer quantity of chemicals being dumped into the environment is quickly growing. UNEP counted the annual release of toxic chemicals in 2006 at 6 million tons, but Worldometer estimates the current release at 10 million tons—a 67% increase in a little over a decade.
Perhaps the most frightening biological impact of many endocrine-disrupting chemicals is their tendency to alter #DNA expression in ways that can be inherited by subsequent generations. It’s long been known that #environmental factors (#food, #air, #water) can cause genes to be switched off or on, or dial their expression up or down. Sometimes the effects are transgenerational, and continued presence of chemicals in the environment can amplify biological impacts from one generation to the next."
✡️ Today's Jew of the Day is Rosalind Franklin!
Rosalind Elsie Franklin was a chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose pioneering work paved the way for many huge scientific advances, specifically around DNA, of which she is considered by many to be an unsung hero, outlining the composition and basic structure of the DNA structure before Watson and Crick.
Franklin's early work was on using X-ray and displacement to determine the porousness of coal, which was of critical importance during WW2, as it determine coal's applicability as both a fuel source and as a possible filter in gas masks, etc.
After the war, she went on to work on biology, where she studied the structure of RNA viruses.
Her she made multiple discoveries, including that of protein molecules arranged in a helix. She even presented her findings at a lecture where Watson attended, but he did not recognize her findings.
Preclinical safety and biodistribution of CRISPR targeting SIV in non-human primates
"Taken together, these results demonstrate safety, biodistribution, and in vivo proviral #DNA editing following IV administration of EBT-001, supporting the further development of CRISPR-based gene editing as a potential therapeutic approach for #HIV in humans..."
Now more than ever I'm glad I didn't mess around with 23andMe. #privacy #dna https://theintercept.com/2023/08/18/gedmatch-dna-police-forensic-genetic-genealogy/
I have been telling people for about 14 years to never, ever provide your DNA to a commercial firm. If you need a medical DNA test, do it only through your doc with a certified medical lab.
Police Are Getting DNA Data From People Who Think They Opted Out - Forensic genetic genealogists skirted GEDmatch privacy rules by searching users who explicitly opted out of sharing DNA with law enforcement. #privacy #DNA
1 = #Universum
#DU bist 1
1 = wenn Du bedingungslos #geliebt bist.
Our DNA origami were able to target immune cells, as well as a subset of cancer metastases in the lung.
Does anyone know what it was? I don't think I was dreaming!
DNA toi Suomeen myyntiin Googlen Pixel-puhelimet
Myyntiin saapuivat Pixel 7, Pixel 7a, Pixel 7 Pro ja Pixel 6a -mallit eli Pixel Foldia ei valikoimasta löydy. Jo aiemmin Pixeleitä ovat myyneet mm. Verkkokauppa ja Gigantti.
Google ei virallisesti myy Pixel-mallistoa Suomessa.
The many posthumous recognitions for Rosalind Franklin include the name of ESA’s ExoMars rover and the commemorative 50p coin issued on her 100th birthday.
Interesting article on "Rosalind Franklin’s true role in the discovery of DNA’s double helix."
"Rosalind Franklin’s role in the discovery of the structure of DNA may have been different than previously believed. Franklin wasn’t the victim of data theft at the hands of James Watson and Francis Crick, say biographers of the famous duo. Instead, she collaborated and shared data with Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins."
Below is the famous Photo 51, an X-ray based fiber diffraction image of a paracrystalline gel composed of DNA fiber taken by Raymond Gosling, a grad student working under Rosalind Franklin in May 1952 at King's College London.
Watson and Crick used characteristics and features of Photo 51, together with evidence from multiple other sources, to develop the chemical model of the DNA molecule.
Happy Birthday Rosalind Franklin (25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958), British chemist and X-ray crystallographer, whose contributions led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA, although they were largely unrecognized during her life. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 went to Crick, Watson, and Wilkins. Watson suggested that Franklin would have ideally been awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with Wilkins, but for her untimely death.