In 1866, one year after the 13 Amendment was ratified (the amendment that ended slavery), Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida, Tennessee, and South Carolina began to lease out convicts for labor (peonage). This made the business of arresting Blacks very lucrative, which is why hundreds of White men were hired by these states as police officers. Their primary responsibility was to search out and arrest Blacks who were in violation of Black Codes.
Once arrested, these men, women and children would be leased to plantations where they would harvest cotton, tobacco, sugar cane. Or they would be leased to work at coal mines, or railroad companies. The owners of these businesses would pay the state for every prisoner who worked for them; prison labor.
It is believed that after the passing of the 13th Amendment, more than 800,000 Blacks were part of the system of peonage, or re-enslavement through the prison system. Peonage didn’t end until after World War II began, around 1940.
This is how it happened.
The 13th Amendment declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (Ratified in 1865)
Did you catch that? It says, “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude could occur except as a punishment for a crime". Lawmakers used this phrase to make petty offenses crimes. When Blacks were found guilty of committing these crimes, they were imprisoned and then leased out to the same businesses that lost slaves after the passing of the 13th Amendment. This system of convict labor is called peonage.
The majority of White Southern farmers and business owners hated the 13th Amendment because it took away slave labor. As a way to appease them, the federal government turned a blind eye when southern states used this clause in the 13th Amendment to establish laws called Black Codes. Here are some examples of Black Codes:
- In Louisiana, it was illegal for a Black man to preach to Black congregations without special permission in writing from the president of the police. If caught, he could be arrested and fined. If he could not pay the fines, which were unbelievably high, he would be forced to work for an individual, or go to jail or prison where he would work until his debt was paid off.
- If a Black person did not have a job, he or she could be arrested and imprisoned on the charge of vagrancy or loitering.
This next Black Code will make you cringe.
- In South Carolina, if the parent of a Black child was considered vagrant, the judicial system allowed the police and/or other government agencies to “apprentice” the child to an "employer". Males could be held until the age of 21, and females could be held until they were 18. Their owner had the legal right to inflict punishment on the child for disobedience, and to recapture them if they ran away.
This (peonage) is an example of systemic racism - Racism established and perpetuated by government systems. Slavery was made legal by the U.S. Government. Segregation, Black Codes, Jim Crow and peonage were all made legal by the government, and upheld by the judicial system. These acts of racism were built into the system, which is where the term “Systemic Racism” is derived.
This is the part of Black History that most of us were never told about.
(Chuck Allen via my FB friends)
Fewer than half the states in the US protect BIPOC from discriminatory punishment for natural hair. The House passed a bill to stop this discrimination, but it was blocked in the Senate by Rand Paul.
Discriminatory policing is denying Black youth their childhood
* class-action lawsuit brought against Toronto Police Service 2023-08 over historic use of street checks, known as carding
* lawsuit highlights damaging, discriminatory impacts of carding
* disproportionately affects Black & Indigenous youth
The real estate industry does this to Black homeowners all the time, despite the existence of the Fair Housing Act.
I cannot find fault with your analysis, though it's not the complete picture (giant money-making machine., for instance.)
That part is really entrenched #SystemicRacism.
Now that #SCOTUS has been highjacked, IDK if there can ever be a national healing the next couple of decades in the US.
Breaks my heart.
Church + State = Systemic Theocratic Harm
The courts are the front line workers of the endless genocide so the genocide can’t end until there’s complete revision/reform/scrapping of the racist colonial theocracy domination system and/or the indigenous people get a separate and independent system of Justice.
"You can better predict where you have data on #birds based on #SystemicRacism — redlining maps from 1933 — than climate, tree cover or population density, everything a bird should actually care about,”
The cycle can only be broken by explicit directed investment in Black neighborhoods.
How extreme heat threatens Black renters, and what policymakers can do to fix it | Brookings
Only one of three people described in this passage doesn't have their race mentioned. Did you assume they were white?
A century ago, as in this passage, white writers often went out of their way to mention non-white identities in offensive and dehumanising ways, while now they often pretend to be "colour-blind," erasing those identities completely.
Both are ways to buttress #systemicRacism, and both assume "white" as the default.
Judge Knocks Down DeSantis' Gerrymandered Congressional Map
* DeSantis (R-FL) vetoed/rejected compromises
* called special session on gerrymandered map
* rebuked by FL circuit court judge
* violates FL constitution non-diminishment clause (prohibits reducing minority voters’ ability to vote for candidate of choice)
Addendum 3 cont'd
Federal court names special master to redraw Alabama congressional map
Court sees 'no reason' to give the state another chance to draw the maps
Special master: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_master
* subordinate official appointed by judge to ensure judicial orders are followed
This is a must watch as a resource explaining what Affirmative Action is and is not.
“Rich Men North of Richmond” Is Populist Anthem Lost in Its Own Grievance
* Oliver Anthony's “Rich Men” #1 spot on Billboard Hot 100 Charts
* song is an accomplished & honest work. It is also, sad to say, a problematic attempt to address a complicated, even impossible, situation
* song is steeped in political moment
* assumes reactionary stance
DeSantis Florida redistricting map is unconstitutional and must be redrawn, judge says
* redistricting plan pushed Gov. Ron DeSantis (R-FL) violates FL constitution
* prohibited f. being used for any future U.S. congressional elections state judge ruled
* diminishes ability of Black voters in north Florida to pick representatives of their choice
"But Frederick Gooding Jr., an African American studies professor at Texas Christian University, said untold more Black Americans have worked just as hard as Scott but struggled against invisible barriers."
D.C. latest community w. a curfew despite doubts that keeping kids at home reduces crime
Research: community curfews have little impact on crime
* juvenile curfew affecting teens & children in targeted neighborhoods
* TRAPP Stars: Teaching Rambunctious Adolescents Peaceful Positude
* committed to creating financially sustainable as integral piece of our community
On this day of remembrance, let us keep showing that #RacialEquity isn’t just an aspiration. Let us reject the cramped view that America is a zero-sum game that holds that for one to succeed, another must fail. Let us remember #America is big enough for everyone to do well & reach their God-given potential.
That’s how we redeem the promissory note of our nation.
…We’re taking on housing discrimination & increasing #Black homeownership. To date, we’ve invested >$7B in historically Black #colleges & #universities to prepare students for high-growth industries. We’ve approved >$116B in #StudentLoanDebtCancellation for 3.4M #Americans so that #borrowers receive the #relief they deserve. And a new #StudentDebt repayment plan is helping Black #students & #families cut in half their total lifetime payments per dollar borrowed.
#TrickleDownEconomics holds that #taxes should be cut for the wealthiest #Americans & biggest corps, that public investments in… #education, #infrastructure & #HealthCare should be shrunk, & good #jobs shipped overseas. It has exacerbated #inequality & systemic barriers that make it harder for #Black Americans to start a business, own a home, send their children to school & retire w/dignity.
by President #JoeBiden
💛 “Making the Case for White Supremacy”
Downplaying an incident or behavior in question, tacitly makes the case for white supremacy by justifying a status quo in which whiteness reigns supreme.
💛 “Making the Case for White Supremacy”
Downplaying an incident or behavior in question, tacitly makes the case for white supremacy by justifying a status quo in which whiteness reigns supreme.
Frontiers | From Grief to Grievance: Combined Axes of Personal and Collective Grief Among Black [and Mixed] Americans
"Disproportionate experiences with grief, loss, and bereavement due to the overlapping and interrelated forces of systemic discrimination and oppression is a defining characteristic of the Black experience in America."
It also fuels action in many who find they have no more fucks to give in a country that hates them and none for a society that ultimately doesn't give a damn.
Driverless Cars are Biased Against Dark-Skinned People and Kids, Scientists Say "the system failing to identify darker-complexioned individuals nearly eight percent more often than their lighter-skinned counterparts"
Texas Revamps Houston Schools, Closing Libraries, Angering Parents
Part of state takeover plan, libraries in underperforming schools becoming spaces for disruptive students to watch lessons on computers
* decision to fire librarians & effectively close libraries in city’s poorest schools
* imposed on 187,000 mostly Black & Hispanic students by administration of Gov. Greg Abbott
As lawyers for #HenriettaLacks’ family plan to sue other companies, legal scholars debate the potential for success
https://www.baltimoresun.com/health/bs-hs-henrietta-lacks-cells-legal-implications-20230806-rfhga5bzj5eonlri6ybkmtv5mu-story.html?lctg=F560942175F8348E549C241F92 #law #MedicalRacism #MedicalTheft #maryland #WhiteSupremacy #capitalism #SystemicRacism #HeLa #Immortal #BlackLivesMatter #BlackCellsMatter #BlackMastodon #BlackFedi
Texas police officer holds innocent family at gunpoint after making typo while running plates
* held innocent Black family at gunpoint
* traffic stop caused by officer misreading car's license plate
* Civil rights lawyer David Henderson thinks the family was profiled, that police violated family's constitutional rights
* video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKOMbnI1OOM
Seize the Hospitals! ...But How?
In May of 2023 several Black Rose / Rosa Negra (BRRN) militants organizing in the healthcare sector attended the Health Autonomy Convergence (HAC) in Durham, North Carolina. This is their collective reflection on and analysis of the event and of the prospects for radical labor organizing in healthcare more generally.
#healthcare #healthcareaccess #healthcareworkers #workers #understaffing #corporateprofits #hospitalsafety #medicalracism #systemicracism #paywall #investors #profitmotive #organizing #peopleoverprofit
<20 Black women physicists in U.S. have tenure. This scholar just joined the club
As the 1st Black woman to earn tenure in particle theory or cosmology theory, Chanda Prescod-Weinstein is breaking barriers in physics
Chanda Prescod-Weinstein: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanda_Prescod-Weinstein
* American theoretical cosmologist/particle physicist
* advocate of increasing diversity in science
Systemic racism in science: Reactions matter
“‘The history of the scientific enterprise demonstrates that it has supported gender, identity, and racial inequity. Further, its institutions have allowed discrimination, harassment, and personal harm of racialized persons and women.’”
@Bethanyrberger The deliberately #evil and mendacious #Florida #MAGA curriculum itself is a #HateCrime and #ChildAbuse at the very least. It's educational #lynching and Nazification writ large. https://www.counterpunch.org/2022/07/22/the-nazification-of-american-education/
#whitesupremacy #racism #desantis #BoycottFlorida #FleeFlorida #education #systemicracism #MAGALies #CrimeAgainstHumanity
Texas A&M recruited a UT professor to revive its journalism program, then watered down the offer after ‘DEI hysteria’
The university celebrated its decision to hire Kathleen McElroy to revive its journalism program. She says she’s staying at UT after she felt judged because of her race and gender
Diversity, equity, and inclusion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diversity,_equity,_and_inclusion
'We are here to stand our ground': Protesters remain at Winnipeg landfill despite order from the city
"Pretty much like a punch in the face, that is what it feels like a punch in the face where your nose starts to bleed," Delaronde said.
"None of our women deserve to be in the landfill – they are not trash. They are human beings, they are very sacred human beings."
Influx of supporters join landfill blockade after act of hate at MMIWG mural
Protesters blocking the landfill south of Winnipeg say their resolve is stronger after a man shoveled soil & debris on a MMIWG mural near the blockade.
The blockade went after Manitoba refused to fund a search for the remains of 2 Indigenous women.
Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missing_and_Murdered_Indigenous_Women
Points 1, 2 (above) were amply/negatively demonstrated by SCOTUS in 2023-06:
U.S. Supreme Court delivers setback to affirmative action in college admissions
In their final week of their current session SCOTUS:
... killed affirmative action (Students for Fair Admissions Inc. v. ...) ...
Most apt comment (hidden here: language):
As we ease into America’s holiday of nationalism and ignorance, I’m just gonna leave this here. It’s a segment from a speech that Frederick Douglass gave on July 5, 1852 at Corinthian Hall, titled “The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.”
I hate the #UnitedStates with every piece of me. I am ashamed to have been born here. I am distraught that my ancestors were ever born and that they ever had to endure the nightmare that is #PlantationNation. I am disgusted that I fell for the ruse and thought it was safe to have children. Now they are stuck in this #whitesupremacist hellhole that is getting worse each day. Thank God they got their degrees already. But my grandkids and nieces and nephews... sitting ducks for the Kens and Karens of the evil Unwarranted Default (#mainstream, #whitegaze, #centrist #AmeriKKKan society and the unendurable, unjust #statusquo it accepts and which it commands, abuses, and threatens the oppressed people it exploits to tolerate and support) and its inhumane, irredeemable #systemicracism. The #SCOTUS is a prime example of why I am over the human species and why I believe it has EARNED the punishment of #climatechange. No decent species would allow white supremacy, much less mandate it and profit from it. Any species that would do that deserves extinction. Given what I see happening in the US each day, I pray that day comes SOON.
FBI Knew Proud Boys Were Prepping to “Kill People,” Did Nothing
A new Senate report savages the FBI and DHS for ignoring pre–January 6 intel
FBI and Homeland Security ignored ‘massive amount’ of intelligence before Jan. 6, Senate report says
Today I finished a new chapter in my book on exclusivity in design. In this chapter I tell the story of Desi, a Black man who demonstrated the biased design in an HP camera tracking system. His video was from 2009, but it’s still very relevant.
Among U.S. Black men, how much life is lost due to police use of force? 3,772 years per 100,000, the highest among any group — roughly 16,000 years of life lost for today’s Black men.
Matthew Lau: The myth of systemic racism in Canada
Opinion by Special to National Post • 9h ago
Those who deny the truth are those who are systemically racist.
Canadian Media have a long history of systemic and blatant , targeted ,racism
Read the Complete #Justice Department’s #Report on the #Minneapolis #Police Department here: https://www.justice.gov/opa/press-release/file/1587661/download
This is disgusting:
“#DOJ’s investigation was prompted by the killing of a Black man, but the rpt includes many reports of #discrimination & #violence against #NativeAmericans, particularly those in the 3rd precinct of #Minneapolis. Overly aggressive officers who asked to be stationed there were known in the dept as ‘cowboys.’”
…the #DOJ excoriated the #Minneapolis #police as an agency that put officers &residents at unnecessary risk& failed to act on repeated warnings about #bias…
the rpt criticizes the #MPD for: using “dangerous tactics & weapons”—incl’g neck restraints &Tasers—against people for #petty offense or no crimes; #punishing residents who criticized the police; patrolling differently based on race;& #discriminating against those w/ #behavioral #health disabilities (sic).
“Our investigation found that the systemic problems in MPD made what happened to George Floyd possible,” the #DOJ report stated.
The #Minneapolis #Police Dept engaged in the #systemic use of #ExcessiveForce & #discriminated against #racial minorities in the years leading up to the police killing of #GeorgeFloyd…, federal authorities said Fri.
Georgetown is giving “preferred admissions treatment” to descendants of the people the Jesuits enslaved there. Could other college benefits for descendants of formerly enslaved build off this example? https://www.wgbh.org/news/education/2022/02/17/if-the-supreme-court-restricts-race-in-college-admissions-should-schools-adopt-slave-descent-as-a-factor-instead #SystemicRacism #Slavery #AntiRacistEducation
Lord. When will #White #women who are inherently privileged recognize that this new #Karen discomfort is paltry compared to what #POCs have ALWAYS had to experience? Making discussions around systemic #racism about their own needs, instead of asking “how can I help?”, feeds into the narrative upon which #systemicracism was founded. #ItsNotAboutYou
This is good! You can't address systemic racism without first admitting its existence.
A Black professor has long said what the IRS now admits: The tax system is biased
Recently I posted that some libraries in southern Oregon were under attack. Racist, bigoted fascists were trying to infiltrate their Board so they could ban books.
Well, the voters have spoken. Our candidates—kind people with integrity—won the election. They won!
Small elections are huge. They mean so very much. Just wanted to share, because these victories have been few and far between.
“The forces of white supremacy always deputize vigilante violence, because the right to vigilante violence against Black people is arguably what white supremacy is. The right is fighting for the right of white people to police Black people, and to inflict any extreme of violence upon them in the course of that policing…That’s what American fascism looks like.” —Aaron Rupar
"America’s Black communities experienced an excess 1.6 million deaths compared with the White population during the past two decades, a staggering loss that comes at a cost of hundreds of billions of dollars, according to two new studies that build on a generation of research into health disparities and inequity.” In the one study, “researchers conclude that the gap in health outcomes translated into 80 million years of potential life lost."
5 stars to The 1619 Project book by Nikole Hannah-Jones
This might be the most important book of the century, so far. Find my full review on StoryGraph:
Gerrymandering is one of the most powerful tools for fascism. It fosters systemic racism and undermines the entire democratic process.
I redesigned Stephen Nass’ CC-licensed illustration to clarify how gerrymandering works. If you know folks who don’t understand it, please share it with them.
In SC this is happening in right now. Black voters are being disenfranchised. And it’s overt racism.
I’m a huge Star Wars fan. I saw the first movie at the drive-in in my pajamas. I saw the second/third at the mall theater with my friends. I’ve watched literally every show/movie in the genre.
But today represents something far more important. On this day in 1961, the Freedom Riders began one of the most important civil rights movements in America’s history. May the force be with them.
An art recommendation for today.
There’s a spectacular exhibit at the de Young of Kehinde Wilde’s recent work, which boggles the mind not only in its ambition and scale (a sculpture fills a room; a painting is billboard sized; so many works of such magnificence done a short period), technical ability, and somber, funereal staging (the paintings are seen in dark rooms on dark walls, under direct lighting that makes them appear to be glowing like stained glass), but also in its unflinchingly direct message about the macabre history and present day experience of racism in this country.
What beautiful, moving work, cloaked in modern homages to classical art. An incredible, important artist of our time. Last night after seeing the show, I looked up the titles of a number of the pieces to see their namesakes. A worthy rabbit hole to dive into.
I love that Obama asked this man to paint his official portrait. So powerful.
See it if you can.
“My Face is Black is True” is, in some ways, like a true crime novel - except the criminals are all US government officials and the victims are millions of some of the poorest citizens of the country, mostly elderly, and all Black.
"Teaching White Supremacy: A Conversation with Donald Yacovone"
This dynamic conversation will explore how white supremacy has infiltrated American culture.
Two Black men and one white woman protested with and on behalf of their constituents. The Black men were expelled and the white woman remains in her seat.
The Democracy we thought we had was an illusion. Now it’s crumbling in plain sight. Systemic racism and fascism are real and being amplified.
What can we do about it?
All 26 republicans on the House Oversight Committee refused to sign the following:
“We, Members of the Committee on Oversight and Accountability, together denounce white nationalism and white supremacy in all its forms, including the ‘Great Replacement’ conspiracy theory. These hateful and dangerous ideologies have no place in the work of the United States Congress or our Committee.”
All 21 democrats signed it.
As an abolitionist I am skeptical about the value of any police reform. But this is still progress. And we get few wins in activism.
Some new regulations:
* Pulling over drivers for mechanical issues is prohibited.
* Smell of weed doesn’t justify stop-and-frisk.
* If a cop sees another cop doing wrong and doesn’t intervene, they are legally considered a participant.
On today's expulsion of the two Black representatives, but not the white rep, Elie Mystal summed it up pretty darn well: "Tennessee has now given the entire country an object lesson in critical race theory better than any AP history course ever could have. Everybody sees it now. Everybody knows it now. Everybody gets exactly what is going on."
#Racism #SystemicRacism #WhiteSupremacyInAction
Folks hating on #AngelReese instead of #CaitlinClark who made the gesture 1st says everything you need to know about #racism in #sports & the #media & both are so entrenched in it they can’t see they are top-scoring players for #SystemicRacism #BLM #BlackMastodon
...two and a half decades leading up to the end of #WWII, in #Germany.
As #MathewCooke rightly argues, #Reconstruction, the #NewDeal, and the #CivilRights as well as the #BLM movements did not resolve these conflicts and injustices, which have indeed resulted in #SystemicRacism and a inequality of living standards and chances in life for these groups.
Truthful history education in the #US would be quintessential, yes, but very hard, because the US are built as a #SlaverNation right from the start, as film maker #MatthewCooke brilliantly argues in the episode "Slaver Nation" of his #podcast, #AmericanOriginStories:
In 1961 Ray Charles cancelled a gig in Georgia, protesting forced segregation of the audience. Only white fans were allowed on the floor while Black fans were restricted to the balcony. The court fined him $757 and white promoters ostracized him.
On this day in 1979 (18 years later!) Georgia issued a formal apology to Ray and inducted him into their hall of fame.
The lack of reparations for what was taken from the Africans who built the wealth for white Americans is part of what contributes to #SystemicRacism that continues to this day in the Western world, including the European countries who started and profited from the transatlantic slave trade.
Thank you! Just doing my part. A lot of the #COVID stuff stemmed from being a researcher on a vaccine trial too.
So to some degree, as a local #BlackDoctor, who grew up in a primarily Black neighborhood here, I honestly felt a pretty significant responsibility to do a lot.
However, removing a name from a plaque isn't the kind of progress that helps hundreds or thousands of current-day Black people whose ancestors were abused and -- even when freed -- had no generational wealth to pass down to their children.
Read the New York Times article about Georgetown's slavery links for free with my subscriber's gift link: https://lnkd.in/gRDZqP8g